The Marketing Mix

How Many Ps Are There In A Marketing Mix?

Tina S
Tina S
Nov 10, 2009
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The Marketing Mix

The marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of the 'four Ps' describing the strategy position of a product in the marketplace. The marketing mix was designed as a simple way to focus on the main elements of marketing for a business and to create a marketing strategy either at business, product or campaign level.


A prominent marketer, E. Jerome McCarthy, proposed a 4 P classification in 1960, which has seen wide use. The four Ps concept is explained in most marketing textbooks and classes.

1. Product - what you are selling
2. Price - how much you are charging for your product
3. Promotion - how you tell people about your offer i.e. your product and price
4. Place - how people can buy your product

Service Marketing Mix - The 7P's of Service Marketing

Having discussed the characteristics of a service, let us now look at the marketing mix of a service.
The service marketing mix comprises off the 7’p’s. These include:

People - services are performed by people whose performance influences the quality of the service delivered and perceived to be delivered.
Process - it's not just the attitudes of the person that matters but the process they use to provide the service.
Physical evidence - services are intangible so the customer looks for physical clues about the quality.


How Many Ps Are There In A Marketing Mix?

So far we have the original 4Ps of marketing, the extra 3 Ps added in the Service Marketing Mix and my four based on critiquing the marketing mix.

That takes us up to 11 Ps of marketing.

UK Marketing expert Fraser Hay published a list of the 5 fundamental principles of marketing:


Since promotion is already covered in the traditional marketing mix, this adds another 4P's to the marketing list - positioning, packaging, persuasion and performance.

Start your brainstorming and identified 15 Ps of marketing mix. In the book of Offensive Marketing by Hugh Davison. That book used an acronym of POISE.

    * Profitable - even in loss leading campaigns and image advertising to build brands, there has to be a clear path to profit.
    * Offensive - perhaps Proactive would be more suitable in this situation.
    * Integrated - your marketing has to Pull together and not consistent of a scatter gun approach of different campaigns which send out conflicting messages.
    * Strategic - I mentioned Purposeful earlier
    * Effective - it has to work.

The New Marketing Mix

So how does the new marketing mix appeal - the 27P's of Marketing (and counting)

   1. Product
   2. Price
   3. Promotion
   4. Place
   5. People
   6. Process
   7. Physical evidence
   8. Purpose
   9. Purchaser
  10. Push/pull
  11. Personal relationships
  12. Positioning
  13. Packaging
  14. Persuasion
  15. Performance
  16. Profitable
  17. Proactive
  18. Pull together
  19. Perform
  20. Permission
  21. Pain
  22. Pleasure
  23. Periodic
  24. Persistent
  25. Partners
  26. Psychology
  27. Perceptions 

Things that marketers need to improve their products or services are considered as marketing mix elements. And there are lots of elements which begins P on marketing mix. The Marketing Ps Don't End There.



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